Terpenes activate the therapeutic properties of cannabis.
Public opinion on cannabis consumption is changing, and in trying to understand the inner workings of the cannabis plant, we're discussing the terpene geraniol. Recent studies on geraniol suggest that it has is incredible potential for healing.
Where is Geraniol Found?
Geraniol is particularly found in geraniums, roses, lemongrass, coriander, nutmeg, and carrots. Bees naturally produce the compound in their scent glands, and use it to mark sources of nectar, and to mark their territory.
Geraniol is also used in essential oil extractions. It is in rose oil and citronella oil. Its flavor blends both sweet and sour notes. It enhances the flavor of desserts and other sweet foods.
Due to its pleasing scent, a many industries use this terpene. You can find it in a range of household products from perfumes to lotions, detergents, and candles.
How much of it is in Cannabis
Although it’s not one of the most commonly discussed terpenes, geraniol is found in cannabis. Its presence seems to pair strongly with the more widely-known terpene linalool, known for its painkilling and anti-inflammatory properties.
In cannabis flowers, the slight smell of rose and citrus may suggest the presence of significant amounts of geraniol. Chemovars known for their higher than average amounts of geraniol include Afghani, Black Cherry Soda, Great White Shark, Agent Orange, and Island Sweet Skunk. These varieties are known for their positive effects on mood.
The Science on Geraniol
Studies suggest that geraniol may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and anticancer properties. It also has a very high bioavailability.
The Anti-inflammatory and Protective Properties of Geraniol
In this case, the researchers treated rats with traumatic spinal cord injuries. After only three weeks of treatment the, “inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and the caspase-9 and −3 activities were significantly suppressed upon treatment with geraniol.” Researchers determined that the terpene strongly inhibits an inflammatory response, as well as oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can lead to an influx of pathogens and infections in the human body.
The Anticancer Possibilities of Geraniol
Many among the research community boast of the anticancer properties of this nicely scented terpene. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of action is its ability to suppress angiogenesis. This is the formation of new blood cells that play a role in feeding tumors. Angiogenesis inhibitors (like geraniol) block this process, and help starve the tumor from both nutrients and oxygen.
A study published in the open-access journal PLoS One (2015), investigated this very effect. Researchers found that “geraniol reduced the migratory activity of endothelial-like eEND2 cells.” Furthermore, geraniol downregulates proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and upregulates cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) expression in eEND2 cells. This leads to the blocking of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR-2 signal transduction, resulting in a suppression of downstream signaling.
Researchers concluded that the terpene “targets multiple angiogenic mechanisms” and deemed it an “attractive candidate for the anti-angiogenic treatment of tumors.” One study, published in the International Journal of Oncology (2016), even found that the terpene helped the subject’s bodies absorb chemotherapy drugs.
The Bioavailability of Geraniol
While the medicinal properties of geraniol seem impressive, another critical factor to consider is that of bioavailability. A study published in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2018), indicated that when administered in oral form, geraniol exhibits a high tendency to permeate across the intestinal barrier. Researchers observed a quick absorption rate with peak blood concentrations occurring at thirty minutes after administration.
A further finding in this 2018 study showed geraniol treatment increasing anti-oxidative defenses in the livers of mice. What’s more — the treatment showing no signs of liver toxicity. Researchers then concluded that treatment with the terpene is safe even at high doses over extended periods of time.
Synergies and Commercial Solutions
As with many plant compounds, their true medicinal benefits often unlock due to underlying synergies between different compounds. Many viable commercial solutions exist on the market, containing nothing more than isolated geraniol oil. However, the true medicinal value of this terpene may lie in its combination with other compounds.
A 2018 scientific study published in Natural Product Communications by the Department of Life Sciences at International Medical University in Kuala Lumpur, investigated synergies with conventional antibiotics. Researchers determined that by combining this terpene and certain antibiotics like ampicillin, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, the resulting synergy boosts their efficacy in combating E. Coli and H. pylori.
While the results are promising, there are currently no studies that describe the synergies between this terpene and other natural compounds found in the cannabis plant. It is still early to tell, but preliminary studies show promise for this little known terpene.
Check out our article about ACTIVATING SPECIFIC CANNABIS COMPOUNDS using your vape temperature control.
Cho, M., So, I., Chun, J. N., & Jeon, J. H. (2016). The antitumor effects of geraniol: Modulation of cancer hallmark pathways (Review). International journal of oncology, 48(5), 1772–1782. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2016.3427
Pavan, B., Dalpiaz, A., Marani, L., Beggiato, S., Ferraro, L., Canistro, D., Paolini, M., Vivarelli, F., Valerii, M. C., Comparone, A., De Fazio, L., & Spisni, E. (2018). Geraniol Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability and Its Multiple Effects on the Liver Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9, 18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00018
Wang, J., Su, B., Zhu, H., Chen, C., & Zhao, G. (2016). Protective effect of geraniol inhibits inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis in traumatic injury of the spinal cord through modulation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK. Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 12(6), 3607–3613. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3850
Wittig, C., Scheuer, C., Parakenings, J., Menger, M. D., & Laschke, M. W. (2015). Geraniol Suppresses Angiogenesis by Downregulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/VEGFR-2 Signaling. PloS one, 10(7), e0131946. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131946